Authors of the present issue


N. 32 - Special Issue on

The Future of Human-Building Interaction: An HCI Perspective

with a Focus Section on

Transforming books and the reading experience through interactive technologies




Mahdis Ali Asgari

is interested in how the built/designed world can influence the way people engage with each other. This can be from a micro scale of product design to macro scale of urban planning. In 2015 she has joined Lighting Design Collective Madrid as a lighting designer and design researcher where and has been involved in several research-based interactive lighting design projects. She started studying architecture in Tehran, Iran and gained her master at Azad University in Tehran. She continued her studies on lighting design and graduated from KTH, Sweden with a master in lighting design in 2013.  Mahdis has also worked as a research assistant at The Interactive Institute of Sweden in Stockholm, where she explored Design Anthropology, Participatory Design and Social Innovation, which had a vital influence in her research area. 



Davide Ancona

holds a PhD in Computer Science, University of Pisa, 1998. He is Associate Professor at the University of Genova. His main research interests include type systems, object-oriented programming, coinduction methods for programming languages, modules and components, software reuse and maintenance, multi-agent systems, and behavioral types. He is author of more than 70 publications. He is the secretary of the executive board of AITO, Association Internationale pour les Technologies Objets (since Jan 2013, previously Vice-President since Jan 2012), and member of the editorial board of the ACM/SIGAPP Applied Computing Review (ACR), Scientific Programming (Hindawi), and Open Computer Science. He has been guest editor of special issues of Science of Computer Programming and Journal of Object Technology. In 2009 he received, together with G. Lagorio, the best paper prize at ECOOP. He has participated to several national and European projects and has been PC member of several workshops and conferences: WOOD’04, Bytecode 2008, ESOP 2008, DLS 2009, 2010 and 2013, FOOL 2010, RP 2011 and 2012, ECOOP 2013 and 2014, POPL 2015 (ERC), OOPSLA 2016 (ERC), TASE 2016, FTfJP 2016. He has been involved in the organization of several scientific events: organizing chair of ECOOP 2009, program co-chair of FTfJP06 and of OOPS special track at SAC from 2004 through 2017, co-chair of CILC 2015 and VORTEX 2016.




Armin Bernhard

is presently the President of the citizen cooperative 'Bürgergenossenschaft Obervinschgau'. His activity is aiming at sustainable regional development and the social dimension, and he is pursuing innovative approaches for an aging society. He has promoted several research projects on regional development, social cooperative, time banks. He has also teaching contracts with the Free University of Bolzano.




Monica Bordegoni

Monica Bordegoni is professor at the School of Design, coordinator of the Virtual Prototyping Lab at the Dpt. of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano. Her main research interests include virtual prototyping of products, Virtual Reality technology and systems and their application in the engineering and industrial design sectors, multisensory interaction, user experience, haptic technologies and interaction, emotional engineering. She is chair of the Executive Committee of ASME-CIE Division and member of the Advisory Board of the Design Society. She is co-chair of the DesignSociety Special Interest Group on Emotional Engineering.




Paul Nicolae Borza

MSc in Electrical Engineering at the University of Brasov (1980), PhD in Bioengineering at “Politehnica” University Bucharest (1994). Paul have published 3 book chapters in international editions, more than 40 papers in journals and conference proceedings, and developed more than 35 research contracts in electrical and electronic engineering. Paul’s main research interests: embedded systems design, biomedical data acquisition and processing, home automation systems, techniques and technologies used in distance learning. He is member of the Electronics and Computers Department at Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania.




Rafik Braham 

is currently a professor of computer science at ISITC of Hammam Sousse, the University of Sousse. He is the head of the research group PRINCE. He received a PhD degree from Georgia Institute of Technology in 1990. His research interests include learning technologies, neural networks, wireless networking (MAC and PHY), Internet-based services and automatic processing of Arabic language. R. Braham is a member of IEEE and IEEE Computer and Education societies. 




Marina Carulli

is Assistant Professor at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Politecnico di Milano. She is a designer and obtained her PhD in Virtual Prototypes and Real Products at Politecnico di Milano. Her research interests include design methods, integration of tools for Virtual Prototyping within the product development process, emotional engineering in product design.




Lilia Cheniti-Belcadhi

is an assistant professor of Computer Science at the University of Sousse, Tunisia, and a graduate of the University of Braunschweig in Germany where she read for a an engineer  and a master’s degree in Computer Sciences. She is a member of the PRINCE Research group at the University of Sousse and her PhD was realized in collaboration with the Semantic Web group at the Institute of Information Systems of the University of Hannover in Germany. Her research interests include Technology Enhanced Learning, Semantic Web, E-Assessment and Mobile Assessment. She is involved, as part of her ongoing research, in several e-learning projects and has co-authored various online courses for graduate students. 



Brendon Clark

is studio director and senior researcher at the RISE Interactive in Stockholm, a Swedish research institute, and he is an adjunct senior lecturer in design anthropology at Umeå Institute of Design, Umeå University. Within the mixed worlds of design and anthropology, industry and academia, his research interests lie in the exploration of generative exchanges (in contrast to one-way knowledge transfers) between various actors and materials in the different types design & change processes  (stakeholders, researchers, designers, users, etc.), leading to the social shaping of change. Over the last 10 years, Brendon has had a special focus on supporting  language learning outside the classroom setting through social material infrastructuring. 




David Coyle

is an Assistant Professor with the School of Computer Science at University College Dublin. His research focuses on the design of technology to address important social challenges, in particular healthcare and sustainability. Past projects include the design of computer games and mobile apps to support mental health interventions, wearable technology in healthcare, and the use of crowdsourcing to support environmental activism.




Benjamin R. Cowan

is an Assistant Professor at UCD’s School of Information & Communication Studies. His work is at the juncture between psychology and computer science, researching how design impacts user experience and user behaviour in collaborative interactions. He has published widely in internationally leading journals and conferences in the field of HCI, with a particular focus on user perceptions in speech interface interactions and emotions in social computing interactions. He is co-director and co-founder of Dublin’s Creative Technologies Network and a co-founder of the ACM SIGCHI Interaction Science (IxSci) Special Interest Group. He is a member of the British Psychological Society and a Professional Member of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).




Vincenzo Del Fatto 


is a researcher at the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Computer Science. He obtained his Computer Science degree at the University of Salerno in 2002 and his PhD in Computer Science jointly at the University of Salerno and INSA (Institut National des Sciences Appliquées) of Lyon (France) in 2009. From 2009 to 2012, as contract researcher at the University of Salerno, he worked on human computer interaction, visualisation of geographic information (maps, augmented reality) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Del Fatto is employed as researcher at UniBZ since 2012. His research interests range from DBMS, GIS, GeoVis to visual environments, and pertain to human computer interaction and technology enhanced learning.




Gabriella Dodero 


since 2006 is Full Professor in Computer Science at the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Computer Science, and Vice-Rector for Studies of UniBZ since 2012. Her recent research work is alternating between topics  in technology enhanced learning for university and schools,  with computer science education topics. Prior to working at UniBZ, she worked at the Department of Computer Science of the University of Genova, where she graduated in Mathematics in 1977




Angelo Ferrando

is a PhD Student at the University of Genova. His  research interests are focused on Multi-Agent Systems (MASs) and Runtime Verification (RV). Since from his master's thesis he has been working on  the design and implementation of a compact and expressive formalism (based on Session Types theory) to be used for the RV of MASs:/Trace Expressions/. With respect to the standard /Centralized/ approach, he has been trying to follow a more decentralized way to solve RV problems, in particular studying the possible use of the Decentralized Runtime Verification (DRV) to improve the efficiency avoiding bottlenecks issues during the runtime monitoring of big MASs.




Adam Girard

is a user experience researcher, interaction designer, and PhD candidate in University College Dublin’s School of Information and Communication Studies. His research interests center on the relationships between people and interactive technologies as they take on new individual, social, and cultural forms, meanings, and values in everyday life. His primary research focus explores how digital reading practices and technologies change the way that we read.




Mounira Ilahi-Amri

holds doctoral degree in computer science from ENSI, University of Manouba. She has received the Master degree in Intelligent Information Systems from the Higher Institute of Computer Science and Management of Kairouan, Tunisia. Mounira is currently an Assistant professor at the Higher Institute of Specialized Education at the University of Manouba in Tunisia where she is an associate researcher. She is a member of the PRINCE Research laboratory at the University of Sousse in Tunisia. Her research interests include Technology Enhanced Learning, Semantic Web, E-assessment and E-accessibility. She has participated in various doctoral summer schools and conferences in Technology Enhanced Learning.




Dan Iordachescu

Doctor of Education (2012) from “Ion Creangă” Pedagogical State University, Moldova, with a thesis on teachers’ educational autonomy competence, currently teaches Pedagogy, Class Management, Curriculum Theory and Practice at the Faculty of Law and Social Sciences. His interests include pre-service and in-service teacher education and the subtler psychosocial dimension of continuing professional development of teachers. He has been recently involved in the study of intercultural stereotypes reflected in education. He has authored 1 book, more than 25 articles and book chapters. Among the projects he has been involved in, mention should be made of MAJMIN: Major competencies to manage minor offenders, No: 517580-LLP-1-2011-1-RO-LEONARDO-LMP and the CNCS-UEFISCDI project Universals and variants of English and Romanian business metaphors. A corpus-based conceptual mapping of contemporary journalese, UVaBuMet, Code: PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-2785. Other projects involved teacher training activities (programme designer, teacher trainer, materials writer, etc.). He has ben involved in Erasmus teaching assignments to the Université de Picardie JULES VERNE - Amiens, France (former Socrates Programme), Lodz University, Poland, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences in PiÅ‚a, Poland, Universidad Distrital ”Francisco Jose de Caldas” Bogota. He is also active in coordinating pre-service teacher training practice, as well as in counselling students for continuous professional development.




Teodora Iordachescu

She is Associate Professor. Doctor of Education (since 2004), teaches ELT Methodology (pre- and in-service teacher training), English Semantics, Translation Studies and Intercultural Business Communication. She is the author of: Pre-service English teacher education: classroom education and teaching practice booklet (2007), Elaborarea ÅŸi implementarea curriculum-ului de limba engleză la facultăţile cu profil economic (2006) and co-author of Tests of Business English (2010) Dictionary of Business Collocations: With Romanian translation and practice section (2009). She has also (co-)authored numerous articles in the field of ELT Methodology, Curriculum studies, linguistics, Lexical semantics and Intercultural Business Communication. She is editor-in-chief of the academic journal The Journal of Linguistic and Intercultural Education-JoLIE, and co-chaired the international conferences CLIE-2008, -2009, 2010, 2015,2016 and 2017 




Ido Iurgel

is professor of Media Computing at Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences and has got a strong academic background in computer science as well as philosophy. He is active in projects and research related to interactive digital storytelling, digital media innovation – in particular for museums –, artistic computer graphic applications, and the implementation of virtual and physical characters. He is head of the Digital Media Master program at his university. He enjoys interdisciplinary work, combining computer science with humanities and working in close cooperation with design professionals.




Manuella Kadar

is Associate Professor with the Computer Science and Engineering Department at University of Alba Iulia. She has also the position of Head of the Centre for Research and Project Management since 2007. In this position she has successfully coordinated more than 15 European, National and International projects funded by various authorities, agencies and bodies. She holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science and Information Technology and also a Ph.D. in the Humanities, namely History. Her research interests include Artificial Intelligence and Multi-Agent Systems, Affective Computing, Computer Vision and Ubiquitous Computing with special view on Cultural Heritage, Higher Education and Smart Cities.  Currently, she is researching students’ behaviour and interactions within academic and social life, how these may be integrated to support ubiquitous education and participatory sensing projects. She has published 6 books and more than 70 peer reviewed publications in a wide-range of international journals and conferences.  




David S. Kirk

is Professor of Digital Living in the school of Computer and Information Science at Northumbria University, UK. His work explores a number of areas within Human-Computer Interaction and Interaction Design, but has recently been focusing on issues around Human-Building Interaction and the role of personal data in the Built Environment. 




Vincent Koenig

is a senior research scientist at the University of Luxembourg, heading the HCI research group and usability lab, part of the Institute of Cognitive Science and Assessment. His work covers: User-centered design, usability, user experience, computer-based assessment, automotive HCI, gamification, and usable and socio-technical security.




Carine Lallemand

is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Luxembourg and Vice-President of the French-speaking UX professionals' association FLUPA. Her research work is focused on the development, adaptation, and validation of UX design and evaluation methods. She is the first author of the handbook “Méthodes de design UX” (Eyrolles, 2015, 2nd edition 2017).




Robert Laurini

is presently Professor Emeritus at KSI, USA; researcher at INSA-Lyon University of Lyon, Fance; president of the NGO 'Universitaires Sans Frontières/Academics Without Borders'. During his employed activities, he was intensively involved in international affairs. Among others, he has been member of PhD committees in 17 countries. Previously, he was full distinguished professor at the National Institute for Applied Sciences (INSA-Lyon), and more precisely at  the Computing Department and at the LIRIS Laboratory in which he was in charge of international affairs. His main interests are spatial and multimedia information systems with applications to urban and environmental planning, and geographic knowledge engineering. In November 1998, he received an ACM award for Technical Contributions and Leadership and a second in November 2010.




Viviana Mascardi

is an Associate Professor at the Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering at the University of Genova, Italy. She co-authored more than 100 peer-reviewed publications on research topics that include:Modeling, verification, rapid prototyping, and development of platforms for complex and distributed systems (multiagent systems). Multilingual semantic interoperability via Semantic Web technologies and ontologies. For each of the above themes, applications on different domains, often
in collaboration with industrial partners, have been designed and developed. In particular, Prof. Mascardi was the Principal Investigator
of the “IndianaMAS” project, funded for 747.600 EUR  by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research and active from March 2012 through March 2015. She was involved in the SAFEPOST FP7 European project closed in July 2016 and in many other national and international projects.




Jason McElligott

is the Keeper of Marsh’s Library in Dublin (founded 1707). A graduate of University College Dublin and St John's College, Cambridge, he has published widely on early-modern print culture. He is currently writing a book on theft and white-collar crime in eighteenth-century Dublin. Imminent articles by him include ‘Bram Stoker and the Un-Dead History of the Seventeenth Century’ in Gothic Studies; 'Ownership Inscriptions and Life-Writing in the Books of Early Modern Women’ in Eckerle & McAreavey (eds), Women’s Life Writing and Early Modern Ireland (Lincoln, NE, 2018); and ‘Advertising and Selling in Cromwellian Newsbooks’, in S. Graheli (ed.), Buying and Selling. The Business of Books in Early Modern Europe (Leiden, 2018).




Ana Melro

has a Ph.D. in Information and Communication in Digital Platforms, from University of Aveiro and University of Porto (2013). A master degree in Sociology and a degree in Sociology (2004), from University of Minho. She is currently a post-doctoral fellowship at DigiMedia (Cic.Digital), University of Aveiro. Her research interest are: Ciberculture; New Media; Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation; Territorial Development; Smart Territories.




Muguras Daniel Mocofan

received his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering from the Politehnica University of Timisoara, Romania in 1994 and 2003, respectively. He is currently a professor at the Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering of the Politehnica University of Timisoara. His research interests in the last years are in the area of multimedia databases, image processing, dynamic textures, smart cities, mobile applications, e-learning, multimedia and web technologies. Since 1997 he was involved in more than 25 international projects (Tempus, Phare, Socrates, Leonardo da Vinci, Life Long Learning, FP6, etc), especially in the field of multimedia, e-learning and life long learning. The publication list includes 4 books and more than 40 papers presented at different international conferences. He was involved in 32 research or international cooperation projects.




Wolfgang Müller

is a Professor for Media Education at the University of Education Weingarten, Germany, where he leads the Media Education and Visualization Group, fostering research in the fields of E-Learning, Human-Computer Interaction, and Information Visualization. Currently, Wolfgang Müller serves as a Co-Editor in Chief for the Springer Journal Transactions on Edutainment and as an Associate Editor for the Journal on Technology for Education and Learning (JTEL). Wolfgang Müller is a member of ACM, ACM SIGCHI, IEEE, and the German Informatics Society (GI). Furthermore, he is a German delegate to IFIP WG 3.3 'Research into educational applications of information technologies'.




Sara Nabil  

is a PhD Researcher in HCI and Ubiquitous Computing at the School of Computing at Newcastle University, UK. She is interested in Adaptive and Interactive Interior Designs using smart and novel soft materials and their interactive morphological properties to design and build interiors that are context-aware, dynamic, changeable and `living'; with the aims of meeting occupants' needs, supporting their well-being and improving the quality of living. 




Lídia Oliveira

has a degree in Philosophy from the University of Coimbra (1990), a Master's degree in Educational Technology from the University of Aveiro, in partnership with the University of Valenciennes (France) and Mons (Belgium) (1995), and a PhD in Sciences and Technologies of Communication from the University of Aveiro (2002). She did her post-doctorate (2009-2010) at CES - Centre for Social Studies - Associate Laboratory of the University of Coimbra. In 2010 she did her Aggregation Examination at the University of Aveiro, in the scientific area of Sciences and Technologies of Communication. She has been a professor in the Department of Communication and Art ( at the University of Aveiro since 1995 until the present. And, she is a researcher and Scientific Coordinator of the University of Aveiro branch of CETAC.MEDIA - Communication Sciences and Technologies Centre ( – a scientific research unit in consortium with the Oporto University. She investigates the implications of information technology and network communication on cognitive and social routines, of the individuals, groups and organizations. Her main scientific interest is in cyberculture studies and social network analysis. Her areas of interest are: Science and Technologies of Communication, ICT and Education, Multimedia, Social Network Analysis, Cyberculture Studies, Sociology of Communication, Information Systems, Digital Libraries, Science Communication, Communication in the Scientific Community (theoretical and empirical studies). She has published both nationally and internationally in peer review journals, book chapters and, conferences proceedings.




Thomas Ploetz

is Associate Professor of Computer Science at the School of Interactive Computing at Georgia Institute of Technology, US. He is an expert in ubiquitous and wearable computing specialized in applied machine learning with primary focus on computational behavior analysis as well as in novel interaction technologies.




Christian Ressel

is Professor for Ambient Intelligent Systems at the Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences. His research interests include study and design of smart spaces, their use in different application fields as well as the interaction between users and these environments. His other research focus lies on using information technologies as assistive technology to support people with special needs. 




Pedro Ribeiro

is a lecturer and a researcher at the Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences, Germany. He holds a Master’s degree in Computer Science from University of Minho. His main research interests are related to the Human-Computer Interaction, Ubiquitous Computing, and Computer Graphics. In recent years, he was involved in several research and development projects where he studied Embodied Virtual Agents in combination with other Human-Computer Interaction concepts as a mean to improve Computer Accessibility, and to explore novel concepts of Educational Technologies and Computer Entertainment.




Giuseppe Roccasalva


is Architect, Phd in Architecture  and from 2003 Research scientist at the School of Architecture and Urban Planning of Polytechnic of Turin. He has got international training and professional experiences in Urban Design and Spatial Planning (C.T.H and K.T.H of Sweden). He has received awards from European educational bodies and has published articles on design decision support systems and scenario making processes. He has more than 10 years experience in urban morphological analyses ranging from GIS-based environmental analyses to sustainable community based design. He is consultant for office of engineering, private Companies and public Authorities. Since 2008 he is president of local landscape and environmental committees in the area of Turin.




Mihai Romanca

MSc in Electrical Engineering at the University of Brasov (1980), PhD in Electrical Engineering at the Transilvania University of Brasov (1999). Mihai published 67 papers in journals and conference proceedings, and developed 23 research contracts in electrical and electronic engineering. Mihai main research interests: biomedical data acquisition and processing, embedded systems design, virtual instrumentation, home automation systems, techniques and technologies used in distance learning. He is member of the Electronics and Computers Department at Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania.




Daniele Ruscio

is a researcher at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Politecnico di Milano, he is teaching “Environmental Psychology” and “Methods and Techniques of Cognitive Processes Analysis” at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano, he is a collaborator of the Driving Evaluation Education and Research Center of the Central Michigan University. The focus of his research relate to cognitive psychology in affecting behaviour. In particular, his main activities are the assessment of the user’s interaction with advanced assistance systems; and the influence of virtual simulations in user’s psycho-physiological responses.




Selena Savic

is an designer and researcher with a combined background in architecture and media design. She completed her graduate education at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade and in Rotterdam, at the Piet Zwart Institute. She holds a joint PhD by EPFL in Lausanne and IST in Lisbon. She is currently a postdoc fellow at the Architecture Theory and Philosophy of Technics chair, TU Vienna, Austria. Her research explores interactions with objects and technology in an irreductionist way, foregrounding seamless technologies and infrastructures




Kalpana Shankar

is a Professor and Head of School at University College Dublin’s School of Information and Communication Studies.  Her research examines how data and related information systems reflect and shape larger societal, cultural, and institutional practices. Her current research projects focus on the sustainability and longevity of social science data archives (funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation of New York) and Irish attitudes towards climate change. She has published widely on the creation of data and records in science, open data in Ireland, ageing and privacy in the home, and other topics in information studies.  She is one of the two Irish members of the management group of the COST Action New Frontiers in Peer Review (PEERE) and is currently on the Council for the European Association for the Study of Science and Technology (EASST).




Diane H. Sonnenwald

is Emerita Professor and Chair, School of Information and Communication Studies, University College Dublin, Ireland. She has been a Distinguished Visiting Professor and Endowed Chair at the Graduate Institute of Library and Information Studies, National Taiwan Normal University, and an Adjunct Professor in Computer Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Before joining academia, she worked at Bell Communications Research and Bell Laboratories. She has a PhD from Rutgers University. In 2012 Diane served as President of the Association of Information Science and Technology (ASIS&T). She was recently awarded a 2017 Muhlenberg College Alumni Achievement Award and the 2016 ASIS&T Watson Davis Award. Other awards include the 2014 Elfreda A. Chatman Research Award, the 2013 ASIS&T Lecture Series Award, a Fulbright Professorship, U.S. Army Research Laboratory Scientific Contribution Award, University of North Carolina Junior Faculty Research Award, ALISE Research Methodology Best Paper Award, and Bell Communications Research Award of Excellence. Diane’s research focuses on human information behaviour in a variety of contexts, interdisciplinary collaboration, and evaluation of emerging and future technology. Diane has authored over 100 peer-reviewed publications. Her latest edited book, Theory Development in the Information Sciences, is published by the University of Texas Press. 




Cristina Sylla

received the master's degrees in technology and digital art, and literature studies, and the Ph.D. degree in educational technology. She is currently a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow with the Center for Child Studies/engageLab, working in the field of Child-Computer-Interaction and the design of innovative technologies. Her work is regularly published in international journals and conferences. She is a fellow of the World Technology Network and a Corporate Member. Her work has been distinguished with several awards, such as the Golden Award for Best Demo at the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology in 2012 and 2015, and the World Technology Award Category Entertainment in 2013. She is part of the program committee from several international conferences.




Andrei Ternauciuc

is an Assistant Professor with the Communications Department of the Politehnica University Timisoara, as well as one of the technical administrators of the Campus Virtual of UPT, the official e-Learning platform of the university. He has over 10 years experience in working with learning management systems, and has helped design and implement various e-learning platforms, including ViCaDiS - Virtual Campus for Digital Students, CVUPT, and others. He took part in over a dozen national and international research and academia projects, and has over 20 published papers in fields such as e-learning, multimedia sciences and life-long learning.




Shi Yuan 

is a PhD student at department of mechanical engineering, Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Her research field is Methods and tools for new product development. Her primary research interests include interactive appliance of olfactory technology, users' behaviour studies for improving driving safety, comfort and experience, and interactive issues in autonomous vehicle.




Peter Wright

is Professor of Social Computing at Newcastle University, UK. He is an expert in the area of Interaction Design and HCI, specialized in human-centred design and mainly focusing on contemporary methods of 'experience-centred' design.